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Distillation or distillation is a method of separating chemicals based on differences in speed or ease of evaporation (volatility) of material or also defined as chemical separation techniques based on boiling point differences. In distillation, the mixture of ingredients is boiled so that it evaporates, and this vapor is then cooled back into liquid form. Substances that have a lower boiling point will evaporate first. This method includes mass transfer type chemical operation units. The application of this process is based on the theory that in a solution, each component will evaporate at its boiling point.

The ideal model of distillation is based on Raoult's Law and Dalton's Law. Distillation can also be said as a process of separating components intended to separate solvents and solvent components. The result of distillation is called distillate and the remainder is called residue. If the distillation is in the form of water, it is referred to as aquadestilata (abbreviated as aquades). In a distillation apparatus generally consists of a column or tray, reboiler (heater), condenser, reflux drum, pump, and packed. The principle of this process is that the mixture will be separated, put in a distillation device. At the bottom of the tool there is a heater that serves to vaporize the mixture. The steam formed will flow upwards and meet the liquid (distillate) above. The low boiling substances in the liquid will evaporate and flow upwards, while the high boiling points in the steam will again condense and follow the flow of liquid down.